The differences between both the notions of impedance and resistance can be stated with the help of various factors, as they strikingly differ from one another. Resistance and impedance are very different as they tend to work on different electrical circuits and seem to depend on different elements. The notion of frequency seems to affect these two in a different way, with changes noticed in the phase angle with that of storage of energy and dissipation of power.

Resistance within an electrical circuit is caused by the electrons present within the conductor, that seem to collide with the ionic lattice. This further results, in the conversion of the electrical energy into heat. However, the opposition to the steady flow of current that is observed in the electric circuit is known as electrical resistance (Silva et al. 2019). It is noted that there is no change in the aspects of frequency when connected with the direct current. This situation is referred to as ideal resistance.

**Figure 1: Resistance**

The figure below shows the AC Resistance with a Sinusoidal Supply, where voltage is stated as, V and resistor is stated as R and this is applied when the switch is in the off mode. In this situation, the voltage seems to force the current in moving and the current will suffer an increase and a decrease depending on the main voltage (Wu et al. 2018).

Therefore, the rise, as well as the fall in the main voltage, will lead to the formation of a sinusoidal curve. However, the voltage and the current tend to reach their maximum position as there is the presence of the load as resistance. This in turn reaches back to the value zero simultaneously, which is introduced by the in-phase.

**Figure 2: AC Resistance with a Sinusoidal Supply**

**Figure 3: Sinusoidal Waveforms for AC Resistance**

The above diagram shows the Sinusoidal Waveforms for AC Resistance, and this in-phase is introduced by the condition of the phasor. Within a complex domain, it is stated that the real or true value of the resistance does not belong to the imaginary amount (Physlink, 2022). As both the voltage and current are in similar phases to each other, therefore, it results in no shifting between them and that is expressed as, θ = 0.

The term impedance is used when within an electrical circuit certain obstructions are suffered by the electric current due to the application of the voltage within it. However, this kind of opposition to the flow of current is evident only in the circuit of alternating currents (Electricalclassroom, 2022). It is noted that this obstruction to the flow of current is due to the presence of inductance and capacitance and the nature of opposition varies in frequency

**Figure 4: Impedance**

The notion of impedance is of two types that include, Resistance R and reactance X. Resistance R is the part that remains constant and does not depend on the changes within the frequencies within the circuit (Circuitglobe, 2022). On the other hand, reactance X is stated as the part that suffers a change according to the frequencies due to the presence of the capacitance and inductance.

Various differences are observed between the two aspects of resistance and impedance. Resistance happens in both the AC and DC circuits, whereas, impedance is seen only in the AC circuits. There are seen a combination of elements of resistance within a resistance but, in impedance, both resistance and reactance are noticed (Linquip, 2022)

In resistance, there lies no phase angle, whereas, in impedance both magnitude and phase angles are seen. Resistance remains constant and it is not affected by the variations in frequencies that are observed in DC and AC circuits, whereas, impedance varies frequently with the changes in frequencies

In this tutorial, the focus has been given to determining the concepts that are associated with the resistance and impedance. However, the characteristics are discussed as both aspects vary depending upon the factors that influence them. It is noticed that the resistance only displays the dissipation of power if it is any material is kept in the field of electromagnetism, whereas, impedance if kept in the electromagnetic field does represent both storage of energy and power dissipation.

**Q1. What is the major difference noticed between impedance and reactance?**

The main difference between teactance and impedance states that the impedance is known as the combination of a series of resistance, whereas; reactance is the imaginary part as it consists of both, inductive and capacitive. However, impedance has both phases as well as magnitude.

**Q2. What can be done to identify resistance from impedance? **

It is to be noted that in both the notions of resistance and impedance the relationship exhibited between the voltage and current is always found linear in the case of a pure resistance. Therefore, resistors used in the circuits of AC terms as impedance and are denoted by the Z. This further states that the resistance in DC is equal to AC impedance. Thus, $\mathrm{R = Z}$, where R is denoted by the resistance in DC.

**Q3. What is the difference between inductive reactance and that capacitive reactance?**

There lies a unique difference among the notions of inductive reactance and capacitive reactance. Inductive reactance that is denoted by, XL is stated as the oppositions that are offered in the flowing of the AC current, by the inductor within an Ac circuit. On the other hand, capacitive reactance, is defined as the flow in the opposition of alternating current due to the presence of capacitance.